Thursday, February 14, 2013

LCD Game Part 6 - Game Over!

Below you will find the completed project. The sketch is fully documented and ready for you to copy and paste into your own IDE.

Here is a quick review of the hardware needed, to get yours going. Of course you will want an LCD panel. Digistump offers a complete LCD Shield Kit. I don't know if they are still available, but if you already have one you are nearly ready to go.

I just checked eBay and see that you can purchase an I2C 16x2 Serial LCD just like the one you see in the video for less than $10.

If you are going with your own components you will need two pull up resistors to get your digispark and LCD to talk to each other. Check Part 1 of this series for info on how to hook it up.

Finally you will need a push button and pull down resistor for the user input. I used a 1K resistor for my project, but even a 10K should work just fine. The hook up is described in the sketch comments.

The sketch below is fully documented, I have highlighted the code that has been added since Part 5. 

If you are paying attention you will notice that every time you power your digispark down and back up again, the high score goes back to zero. Look at the video again. That wasn't the case it already had a high score. In our next post we will show you how to teach Sparky to remember values when the power is removed and recall them when he powers up again later.  C U then.

/* ATtiny85 as an I2C Master   Ex2        BroHogan                           1/21/11
 * Modified for Digistump - Digispark LCD Shield by Erik Kettenburg 11/2012
 * ATtiny Pin 1 = (RESET) N/U                      ATtiny Pin 2 = (D3) N/U
 * ATtiny Pin 3 = (D4) to LED1                     ATtiny Pin 4 = GND
 * ATtiny Pin 5 = SDA on DS1621  & GPIO            ATtiny Pin 6 = (D1) to LED2
 * ATtiny Pin 7 = SCK on DS1621  & GPIO            ATtiny Pin 8 = VCC (2.7-5.5V)
 * NOTE! - It's very important to use pullups on the SDA & SCL lines!
 * PCA8574A GPIO was used wired per instructions in "info" folder in the LiquidCrystal_I2C lib.
 * This ex assumes A0-A2 are set HIGH for an addeess of 0x3F
 * LiquidCrystal_I2C lib was modified for ATtiny - on Playground with TinyWireM lib.
 * TinyWireM USAGE & CREDITS: - see TinyWireM.h

// Number Flip-Flop by Budd Churchward, WB7FHC, @barnacleBudd 

/* Place a push button on your board
 * Put a 1K resistor between one pin on the button and ground
 * Place a jumper between pin 5 and a point between the button and resistor
 * Place a jumper between 5V and the other side of the button

#include <TinyWireM.h>                  // I2C Master lib for ATTinys which use USI - comment this out to use with standard arduinos
#include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h>          // for LCD w/ GPIO MODIFIED for the ATtiny85
#define GPIO_ADDR     0x27             // (PCA8574A A0-A2 @5V) typ. A0-A3 Gnd 0x20 / 0x38 for A - 0x27 is the address of the Digispark LCD modules.

LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(GPIO_ADDR,16,2);  // set address & 16 chars / 2 lines

String winner ="0123456789";            // a test string to easily see if game is over
String workingString = "0123456789";    // these get scrambled
int rnd;                                // will hold a random number for us.
int myButton = 5;                       // hook button to pin 5 with pull down resistor see notes above
int btnPress;                           // is it down or is it up
byte tick = 0;                          // counts the digits we plan to flip
unsigned long myTime;                   // used with mySpeed to set tick rate

int mySpeed = 1000;                     // start with a 1 second interval
int highScore = 0;                      // so the first score will always beat it
int thisScore = 120;                    // start with 120 points

void setup(){
  TinyWireM.begin();                    // initialize I2C lib - comment this out to use with standard arduinos
  lcd.init();                           // initialize the lcd 
  lcd.clear();                          // clear the screen
  lcd.backlight();                      // turn on the backligth
  pinMode (myButton, INPUT);            // pin 5
  pinMode(1, OUTPUT); //LED on Model A  // we light the LED when the button is pressed
  scramblePrompt();                     // Go pick random numbers until user presses button
  scrambleString();                     // puts digits in random order
  displayWorkingString();               // prints digits
  lcd.setCursor(12,1);                  // move to bottom right corner
  lcd.print(thisScore);                 // show starting score
  myTime = millis();                    // start timer

void loop()  {
  btnPress = digitalRead(myButton);     // read pin 5
  if (btnPress==1){                     // When button is down ...
    digitalWrite(1,1);                  // light up on-board LED
    //lcd.print(' ');
    flip();                             // go flip some digits
  }else{                                // When button is up ...
    digitalWrite(1,0);                  // turn off on-board LED
  if(millis() - myTime > mySpeed ){     // when we have waited long enough
    shiftLeft();                        // move the current digit left
    myTime = millis();                  // reset interval timer

void flip(){
  int i=0;                              // a counter
  if(tick==1){tick=10;}                 // power play, flip all if only 1 digit
  tick--;                               // undo the last increment, we don't need it
  do {  
    swap(i,tick-i);                     // swap two digits
    i++;                                // increment counter
  } while (i<=(tick/2));                // do half of them and we're done
  displayWorkingString();               // put the new order on the screen
  tick= 0;                              // reset the digit counter
  myTime = millis();                    // reset the interval timer

void shiftLeft(){
  if (tick < 10){                       // keep us in the range...
    lcd.setCursor(tick + 2,0);          // move to spot in front of our digit
    lcd.print(workingString[tick]);     // put a copy of digit in the new spot
    lcd.print(' ');                     // erase the original digit
    tick++;                             // increment the digit counter
    thisScore--;                        // subtract a point
    int x = 12;                         // cursor location for score when its 3 digits
    if(thisScore<100){x++;}             // nudge location for 2 digit score
    if(thisScore<10){x++;}              // nudge again if only 1 digit
    lcd.setCursor(x,1);                 // set the cursor location
    lcd.print(' ');                     // erase digit if we are dropping from 100's to 10's
    lcd.print(thisScore);               // show current score
    if(thisScore==0){                   // When points are all gone ...
      youLose();                        // Tell the user he lost
      return;                           // go back to loop()

  }else{                                // if user doesn't press the button...
    tick=0;                             // start again at the beginning
    displayWorkingString();             // move the digits back in place

void scramblePrompt(){
  lcd.noCursor();                       // some LCDs want to flash at you
  lcd.print("NUMBER FLIP-FLOP");        // show the title on the top line
  lcd.setCursor(0,1);                   // move to the bottom line
  lcd.print("Press Button Now");        // prompt the user to press the button
  do {
    rnd=random(9);                      // pick random numbers over and over
  } while (!digitalRead(myButton));     // until user presses the button

void scrambleString() {
  lcd.clear();                          // clear the screen
  lcd.print("NUMBER FLIP-FLOP");        // print the title again
  for (int i=0; i<10; i++){             // do this once for each digit
    rnd=random(9);                      // pick a random spot
    swap(i,rnd);                        // swap two of the digits
  lcd.clear();                          // clear the screen again
  lcd.setCursor(0,1);                   // move to bottom row
  lcd.print("HS=");                     // print the high score

void swap(int x, int y){
  byte hold=workingString[x];           // store the first digit
  workingString[x]=workingString[y];    // copy the second digit to the first spot
  workingString[y]=hold;                // put the first digit in the second spot

void displayWorkingString(){
  lcd.setCursor(2,0);                   // move to top row
  lcd.print(' ');                       // erase the first digit
  lcd.print(workingString);             // put the whole string back in place
  if (workingString==winner){           // if the digits are all in order ...
    youWin();                           // go do the cool stuff for the winner

void youWin(){
  lcd.setCursor(0,1);                   // move to the second row
  if(thisScore > highScore){            // when we get a new high score
    lcd.print("HIGH SCORE!");           
    highScore = thisScore;              // update the new high score
  }else{                                // when score doesn't beat high score
  mySpeed = mySpeed - 50;               // lower mySpeed means faster game
  if(mySpeed<400){mySpeed=400;}         // don't go too fast
  playAgain();                          // Do it all again

void youLose(){
  lcd.setCursor(0,1);                   // move to the second row
  lcd.print("YOU LOSE");
  mySpeed = mySpeed + 200;              // higher mySpeed means slower game
  if(mySpeed>1000){mySpeed=1000;}       // never slower than once a second
  playAgain();                          // do it all again

void playAgain(){
  lcd.clear();                          // clear the screen
  scrambleString();                     // go mix up the digits again
  displayWorkingString();               // show us the new order
  thisScore = 120;                      // start again with 120 points

1 comment:

  1. Hei.
    Great game and great project.
    I just finished setting up a Digispark with your game on it but I am terrible at playing. I can't even win the game.
    Can you provide some tips and maybe further instructions as to how the rules of the game work?